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Volume 4 | Death & Resurrection of the Messiah

Bringing God's Shalom to a World in Chaos

Runtime of this lesson: 01:51 minutes2000


Pack your bags. We're going on a journey. A quest to uncover Scripture and its meaning across history. Filmed on location in Israel and throughout the Middle East, the Faith Lessons DVD series is an adventure in biblical learning. You will discover why Jesus turned the world upside down with his compelling call to follow him.
Teacher and historian Ray Vander Laan brings together history, culture, and geography to illuminate the Gospels. Eight DVD lessons supported by an interactive Discovery Guide will let you, your family, or your small group walk with Jesus through the days of his ministry on this earth. The insights you gain will transform your reading of the Gospels and inspire a deeper faith commitment.

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Holy Definition

Pure, set apart for God. God is holy. He is perfect. He does not do anything wrong. God also wants his people to be holy. One day, God will make them perfect.

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Holy of Holies Definition

Inner part of the tabernacle and/or temple where the ark of the covenant was placed. It was a symbol of God's dwelling.

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Herod the Great Definition

Decreed king of Judea by the Romans in 40 BC. Poorly accepted by the Jews because of his questionable heritage as a descendant of Esau and a native of Idumaea (Edom). Most infamous for trying to kill the infant Jesus by ordering the slaughter of a...

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Great Rift Valley Definition

Valley east of Israel where the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea are located. Also known as the Jordan Valley.

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Gilead Mountains Definition

Mountains east of the Jordan Valley between the Dead Sea and the Sea of Galilee.

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Gospel Definition

Means "good news." The gospel is the message about how Jesus defeated evil. He died and then became alive again to make us new and give us hope for the future.

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Holy Spirit Definition

One of the three persons of God. In the Old Testament we see the Holy Spirit active in the creation of the world. The Spirit also filled certain people with power at special times, and worked through men to produce the Scriptures.Because Jesus die...

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Idumea Definition

Another name for the city of Edom, meaning "red." Located south of the Dead Sea and west of Arabah; home of Herod the Great. Some early followers of Jesus came from Idumaea (Mark 3:8).

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Judea Wilderness Definition

The eastern slopes of the Judea Mountains form a 10-mile-wide, 30-mile-long hot, dry wilderness frequently used as a refuge for those in hiding or seeking a spiritual retreat, including the Essenes at Qumran, John the Baptist, David, and Jesus. Si...

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Kidron Valley Definition

Deep wadi forming the eastern border of Jerusalem between David's City and the Mount of Olives. The spring of Gihon and the garden of Gethsemane are in this valley.

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Joseph Definition

The husband of Mary who was the mother of Jesus (Matt. 1:16-25).

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Jesus Definition

The promised Messiah, lived a remarkable life as a Jewish rabbi. Through his ministry, death, and resurrection, God fulfilled his covenant promises.

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Immanuel Definition

the name of the Messiah as prophesied by Isaiah, often represented in Christian exegesis as being Jesus Christ (Isa. 7:14).

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Gennesaret Definition

See Sea of Galilee.

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Eastern Wall Definition

Followed the original line dating from Solomon's days. The main feature in the wall, the Eastern Gate (see above), was the original eastern entrance to the Temple Mount. At one point, the walls of the temple rose more than 225 feet above the botto...

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Cella Definition

The great hall of a temple which contained the cult statue.

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Central Mountains Definition

Region made up of three mountain ranges: Hebron in the south, Judea in the center, and Samaria in the north.

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Upper City Definition

The highest area in Jerusalem (located on the Western Hill now named Mount Zion). Herod built his palace here, and many wealthy Jews also lived in the upper city. The area was dominated by affluent Hellenists.

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Beatitude Definition

Any of the declarations of blessedness pronounced by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount.

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Ashtoreth Definition

Canaanite goddess of fertility and love. She is thought to be the daughter of the fertility goddess Asherah.

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Christ Definition

The title of Jesus that means "annointed" or "chosen one" in Greek. The Hebrew word is "Messiah." Jesus Christ is God's chosen one to bring salvation to his people.

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Crucify Definition

To nail or tie a person to a cross until that person died. A cross was made of rough beams of wood nailed together in a "t" shape. Jesus died by this method, which was usually used for criminals.

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Dome of the Rock Definition

The Muslim mosque built in the seventh centurion the Temple Mount. The presence of this mosque makes it impossible to excavate the Mount.

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Eastern Gate Definition

Main entrance to the temple area in Jerusalem. In some traditions, it is believed to be the location of the Last Judgment. Also known as the Beautiful Gate.

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Demon Definition

A powerful evil spirit that worked for Satan. Demons can sometimes control people. But Jesus has power over the demons and can make them come out of people (like he did at Susita).

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David's City Definition

The Jerusalem of David's time, located on a narrow strip of land (Mount Moriah), was about ten acres in size and populated by approximately 1,500 people. The city was naturally defended by the Kidron Valley to the east and the Tyropean Valley to t...

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Danite Definition

The name of a member of the tribe of Dan.

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Lamb of God Definition

Jesus is called the Lamb of God. He was sacrificed like a lamb to take away the sins of God's people. (See Passover ).

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Leviathan Definition

A sea monster.

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Abba Definition

An Aramaic word for father, used by Jesus and Paul to address God in a relation of personal intimacy.

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Adam Definition

The first man God created. He did not obey God and brought sin and death into the world (Gen 1-5). Jesus is compared to Adam because Jesus is a new beginning for the human race. Jesus brings life to those who believe in him.

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Tiberias Definition

Capital built by Herod Antipas on the Sea of Galilee's western shore; named for Tiberias Caesar. Believed to be built over a cementary and considered unclean by religious Jews. After AD 70, it became a center of Jewish religious thought.

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Temenous Definition

Sacred building.

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Table of Showbread Definition

Table that stood in the holy place of the tabernacle and temple, outside the Holy of Holies. Priests placed the bread of the Presence (Ex. 25:30), or showbread, on it. The bread symbolized the Israelites' commitment to give the Lord the results of...

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Gethsemane Definition

The word gethsemane is derived from two Hebrew words: gat, which means "a place for pressing oil (or wine)", and shemanim, which means "oils." During Jesus' time, heavy stone slabs were lowered onto olives that had already been...

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Herodion Definition

Anything pertaining to Herod the Great and the Herodion period; or the political party that dominated Herod Antipas' territory and politically and economically supported Roman overlords.

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Temple Mount

The ridge on which Jerusalem's Temple was built and/or the platform on which the Temple and its courts stood. King Herod's platform was supported by massive walls, the tallest standing 160 feet, and measured more than 1,500 feet long, north to sou...

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Wilson's Arch Definition

Supported a bridge that extended from the Upper City, where Sadducees and other influential Jews lived, across the Tyropean Valley to the Temple Mount; extended 75 feet above the valley floor and spanned 45 feet.

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Sadduccees Definition

Means "righteous ones." Wealthy Jewish aristocracy, claiming descent and authority from the high priest Zadok. Oversaw Temple; theology based on the first five books of the Bible; did not believe that God interfered in human lives or in ...

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Olive Crusher Definition

The stone basin used to crush olives into pulp. A donkey pushed on a horizontal beam, which in turn rolled a millstone that crushed into a pulp ripe olives placed in a large, round basin. An olive crusher was often placed in a cave, where the mode...

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Masada Definition

A fortress expanded by Herod the Great to include a palace; on a mountain plateau on the Dead Sea's shore near Idumaea. David wrote, "The Lord is my rock and my fortress" (Ps. 18:2), a possible reference to this flat mountain plateau. Al...

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Tabernacles (Festival, Sanctuary, Succot) Definition

The seventh yearly feast (Lev. 23) when all males were required to come to Jerusalem. The people celebrated Israel's wandering in the desert by living in temporary shelters. Included a water ceremony as part of prayer of rain.

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Temple Mount Definition

'The ridge on which Jerusalem's Temple was built and/or the platform on which the Temple and its courts stood. King Herod's platform was supported by massive walls, the tallest standing 160 feet, and measured more than 1,500 feet long, north to s...

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Messiah Definition

A Hebrew word meaning "anointed" or "chosen one." The Greek word used in the New Testament for "anointed" is Christ. In the Old Testament, God promised to send a special person called the Messiah. This new king would ...

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Neokoros Definition

Title borne by a city which possessed a temple dedicated to the imperial cult.

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Marble Definition

The great king Herod imported marble from Italy to build his glorious city of Caesarea. Many of Herod's cities and buildings were covered with this stone. He built these magnificent structures so people would remember him and honor him as a great ...

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Lord, lord Definition

(in small letters or initial capital) means "master" or someone who is in control. The early followers of Jesus said "Jesus is Lord" to mean that he has authority over everything.

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LORD Definition

(in all capital letters) refers to the personal name of God. The Hebrew word for this name is Yahweh, which means "I AM WHO I AM." This name tells us that God is always with his people.'%uFFFD

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New City Definition

During and after Jesus' time, the city expanded north, and many wealthy people built large villas in this new area of Jerusalem. Herod Agrippa walled it about thirty or more years after Jesus? crucifixion.

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Offering Definition

Something given to God to worship him. In the Old Testament, God's people offered food and animals to God. In the New Testament, Jesus offered himself as a sacrifice to God for us. Followers of Jesus serve God with their whole lives as an offering...

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Sea of Galilee Definition

Freshwater lake filled by the Jordan river, located in the Great Rift Valley and site of the first-century commercial fishing industry; significant for a trade route on its northern shore. Jesus spent the majority of his ministry here, including t...

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Shavuot Definition

Means "weeks"; also known as Pentecost or the Feast of Weeks. It's celebrated 50 days after the Sabbath following Passover.

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Scapegoat Definition

'A goat let loose in the wilderness on Yom Kippur after the high priest symbolically laid the sins of the people on its head (Lev. 16:8,10,26).'

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Passover Cup Definition

During the Passover liturgy of Jesus' day, participants would drink from four cups of wine at different times. The third cup was called the cup of salvation. While celebrating the Passover with his disciples in the Upper Room, Jesus offered them t...

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Passover Definition

A Jewish celebration feast. It reminds the people how God saved them from slavery in Egypt. Part of the meal includes the Passover Lamb. At the first Passover a lamb was killed and its blood was placed on the people's door frames. This was so God ...

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Ashlar Stones Definition

Hand-shaped stones (found near the Temple) brought from a quarry nearly a mile away. One 45-foot-long stone weighs nearly 600 tons.

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Antonia Definition

Herod the Great rebuilt the Hasmonean foretress (Bira) in Jerusalem next to the Temple Mount and renamed it the Antonia after Mark Anthony. Roman troops were stationed here.

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Cliff at the Garden Tomb

Cliff at the Garden Tomb This cliff face is located just outside the garden tomb. It was originally a quarry, but the rock quality was poor. It is just outside the city of Jerusalem, near the main gate. The area in front of the cliff was probably ...

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Crucifixion Prophesies

The Christian faith is built upon the reality of Christ's death and resurrection. Jesus' death removed the barrier of sin between humankind and God, and brought into being a new era of relationship.Prophecies given hundreds of years before Jesus w...

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Caesarea Philippi

Located in the northeastern part of Israel at the foot of Mount Hermon, lay Caesarea Philippi, a pagan city built by Herod Philip, a son of Herod the Great.For many years, people in this area had worshiped false gods, including Baal (Josh. 11:16-1...

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Caesarea Philippi Definition

Large Hellenistic city rebuilt and renamed by Philip the Tetrarch. Located on Mount Hermon in the upper Jordan Valley near the spring of Panias, one of the three headwaters of the Jordan River, and the site of a great pagan temple dedicated to Pan...

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Burial Practices

Burial PracticesThe BodyAccording to Jewish interpretation of the Old Testament Law, burial had to occur within 24 hours (Deut. 21:23). This was partly due to the climate in Israel, and partly because the body was considered to be ceremonially unc...

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Timing of Jesus' Death

There is an abundant amount of evidence both in Scripture and in the religious practices of the Jews that God carefully planned the timing of Jesus' death and resurrection. The following are just a few examples of God's planning:Prophecies Prophec...

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Decapolis Area

Decapolis means "10 cities." Though the number of cities changed from time to time, the Decapolis was a group of independent city-states that were thoroughly pagan and Hellenistic. Veterans of Alexander the Great's army founded several o...

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Jerusalem: Hezekiah's Water Tunnel

This tunnel was created by Hezekiah's workmen more than 700 years before Jesus. Working from the spring of Gihon on one side, and the western slope of the ridge of Jerusalem on the other, two teams of workmen created a tunnel by chiseling through ...

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The Mudbrick Gate in the Tel of Dan

This gate was filled in 3,500 years ago, during an ancient "urban renewal." You can still see the stone pavement leading to the gate. Note the mud brick arch over the supported entrance. Just inside the entrance are the gate chambers typ...

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Olive Trees

The olive tree is known for its beauty (Hosea 14:6) partially because its large ancient trunk often has the look of a productive past. Furthermore, one side of the tree's leaves are light green and the other, a much lighter green, give the leaves ...

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Mount Moriah

Today the top of Mount Moriah lies somewhere beneath the Temple Mount and the Dome of the Rock. Throughout the Bible, this special place played a significant role in many people's lives:Abraham In Gen. 22:1-14, God told Abraham to sacrifice Isaac...

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Messiah from East

A number of significant events in the history of the Jewish people, particularly events that relate to God's presence, have been recorded as occurring from the east.- The Children of Israel, with the ark symbolizing God's presence, entered the Pro...

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Jerusalem Districts

David's City The Jerusalem of David's time, located on a narrow strip of land (Mount Moriah), was about ten acres in size and populated by aprroximately 1,500 people. The city was naturally defended by the Kidron Valley to the east and the Tyropea...

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Basalt Crusher

This crusher is found at Capernaum, Jesus' home-base (Matthew 4:13), near the synagogue. The local basalt "a hard, volcanic black rock" made excellent crushers and other types of grinders.Jesus frequently saw crushers and millstones like...

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A New Tomb

Throughout Bible times, the burial ritual was regarded as very important. Jesus, sharing fully in our humanity (Heb. 2:14), was given a typical, though hurried, burial. Understanding the burial customs and practices of first-century Israel can hel...

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They Left Their Nets Behind

They Left Their Nets BehindBefore Jesus' time, few Israelites were fishermen. There was only one Hebrew word for fish, and it covered everything from minnows to whales. In Jesus' time, a small, flourishing fishing industry developed around the Sea...

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Palm Sunday

The Passover For the Jewish people, Passover was more than a religious observance. It was the time of year when they celebrated liberation from Egyptian bondage.During Jesus' time, they also used this opportunity to express their longing for polit...

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A Far Country Decapolis

The Decapolis is mentioned by name only three times in the New Testament. In addition to these three instances, on at least two other occasions, Jesus visited specific locations in the largely pagan league of cities to the east of the Sea of Galil...

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He Went To Synagogue

He Went To The SynagogueThe New Testament records more than 10 occasions on which the ministry of Jesus took place in the synagogue. The Gospels record that "Jesus went throughout Galilee, teaching in their synagogues." Yet the Christian...

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Gates of Hell

Hades, originally the Greek god of the underworld, is the namesake for the place where departed spirits live. It was frequently used in the Bible as a synonym for hell or the grave (Psalm 9:17; 55:15; 116:3).As Jesus used it in Matthew 16:18, Hade...

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Shofar

The Ram's HornUsed to intimidate the enemy, to declare war, and to call people to assembly, the shofar is one of the oldest wind instruments in the world.' The army of Israel marched around Jericho to the signal of the shofar (Josh. 6). Jewish tr...

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Jerusalem: The Southern Stairs

This photograph shows the southern stairs as viewed from the west, looking onto the stairs and Herod's massive Temple.On the right side of the photo is a straight joint in the wall. This is the beginning of Herod's extension of the Mount to the so...

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No Greater Love

Korazin - The CityStudying the ruins of Korazin and other Galilean towns, scholars have pieced together a picture of family life in the first century.Korazin stood in the northwestern corner of the Galilee region, about three miles from the'%uFFFD...

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Confronting Evil

The CityAncient Beth Shemesh guarded the Sorek Valley of Israel's Shephelah; a place where the pagans and the Israelites often interacted.Beth Shemesh stands in Israel's Shephelah;foothills lying between the coastal plain and Judea Mountains. Seve...

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When Storms Come

Sea of GalileeMuch of Jesus' ministry occurred around the Sea of Galilee, a beautiful sea set in the fertile and prosperous region of northern Israel.Much of Jesus ministry occurred around the Sea of Galilee, and he sometimes used the symbolism of...

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Judean Wilderness

The Judean Wilderness occupies the area from the eastern slopes of the Judea Mountains down to the Great Rift Valley, and runs along the western shore of the Dead Sea.Very little rain falls here, so there are very few plants or animals. Many deep ...

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Jerusalem Geography

Hinnom Valley This valley formed the western boundary of the Upper City of Jesus' time; it began along the Western Hill and ended where the Tyropean and Kidron Valleys meet.Just west of Jerusalem, this valley was at one time the city sewage dump, ...

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Seder and Marriage

The Marriage CupDuring Biblical times, a young man who wanted to marry would go with his father to the chosen woman's house to meet her and her father. They'd negotiate a steep "bride price", the money or physical items that the woman's ...

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The Garden Tomb

Just north of the Damascus Gate, the main northern entrance to Jerusalem, is a beautiful garden located against the side of a rocky cliff. It has been a place of interest to many Christian visitors because it is remarkably similar to the Bible's d...

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Water Systems

The Importance of WaterBecause Israel is such an arid country, water has always been important to its inhabitants. Many cities were built only where it was certain fresh water was available. When a city was small, a nearby spring, well, or cistern...

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Abyss Definition

Means "bottomless pit." In the New Testament, the sea symbolized chaos, evil, and evil beings. The depths of the sea were seen as the home of demons, or the Abyss, according to Jewish tradition.At one point during his ministry, Jesus com...

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Theaters

More than any other person, Herod the Great was responsible for bringing the theater to Israel.His campaign to make humanistic Hellenism the worldview of his people included building theaters at Caesarea, Jericho, Jerusalem, Samaria, and Sidon. Ma...

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The Temple Mount at Jerusalem

God despised the Canaanite high places where pagan worship was carried out. His orders to the Israelites were to destroy them. Yet God communicated with his people through their culture. He allowed them to establish high places where he could meet...

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The Sea of Galilee

Rabbis of ancient times said, "The Lord has created seven seas, but the Sea of Galilee is his delight." Anyone who sees the Sea of Galilee understands this statement: The blue water, set against a green and brown background of surroundin...

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Adam Definition

The first man God created. He did not obey God and brought sin and death into the world (Gen 1-5). Jesus is compared to Adam because Jesus is a new beginning for the human race. Jesus brings life to those who believe in him.

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Zorah Definition

Town in the Shephelah where the tribe of Dan settled. Samson came from here.

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Aijalon Valley Definition

Valley connecting the coastal plain and the Judea Mountains where Joshua made the sun stand still.

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Antipas Definition

Son of Herod the Great. He heard about Jesus, listened to John the Baptist's teachings, met Jesus but sent him to Pilate (Mark 6:14%u201420; Luke 23:8).

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Agrippa II Definition

The great-grandson of Herod the Great. He discussed Paul's case in Caesarea with governor Festus, heard Paul's conversion testimony, and recognized that Paul was trying to persuade him to become a Christian (Acts 25:13, 23;26:1).

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Agrippa I Definition

The grandson of Herod the Great, to whom Emperor Claudius gave Herod the Great's entire kingdom. He arrested Christians, had James put to death, and imprisoned Peter. Agrippa l died when he allowed people to treat him like a god (Acts 12:21%u20142...

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Zion Definition

A hill within the city of Jerusalem. God's temple was built on Zion. Sometimes Zion or Daughter of Zion is used to refer to the whole city of Jerusalem, or to the people of God. The New Testament refers to Mount Zion as the New Jerusalem. It is pa...

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The Remains of Susita

This neatly arranged row of marble and basalt columns was part of a basilica church during the period after Jesus' time. The floor of the church was made of colored marble tiles arranged in geometric designs. This church was in Kursi, near Susita....

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The New City

This view is from the northwest looking southeast across the New City. Jerusalem expanded to the north in Jesus' time, to the area in the foreground called the New City. The wall in the center is the second wall, and the area inside it is the busi...

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Ossuaries

Ossuaries Beginning shortly before Jesus' time, Jewish people began to practice reburials. After the flesh had decayed from the bones of a person who was buried, the bones were collected and placed in a small box, an ossuary, like the one shown he...

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Tombs

Tombs varied greatly in appearance. The poor probably had nothing more than small underground chambers. Wealthier people, however, created extensive tombs cut into solid rock near the ground.Across the entrance, a large, flat, round tombstone (oft...

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Jewish Revolts

The Revolt Begins In AD 66, a Gentile in Caesarea offered a pagan sacrifice next to the synagogue's entrance on the Sabbath. Jewish citizens protested, so Jerusalem authorities ended all foreign sacrifices in the temple, including those to Caesar....

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The Theater at Caesarea

Herods' love of Hellenistic culture and his desire to introduce it to the Jewish nation is illustrated clearly by the theater at Caesarea. Apparently, this structure was built outside the city because its obscene and bawdy performances may have cr...

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The Mount of Olives

The Mount of Olives is 2,650 feet above sea level. The ridge is two miles long. Beyond the Mount of Olives is the Judea Wilderness. The Old Testament predicted that the Messiah would come from the east through the wilderness and would enter Jerusa...

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Give us a King

Give Us A KingYou may have learned somewhere that God did not want Israel to have a king. Most Christian churches teach this to youngsters early in Sunday school. But it is wrong. God did want Israel to have a king; he just had a certain kind of k...

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Not on Bread Alone

Not on Bread AloneIsrael is mostly rugged desert. The variety of Hebrew words for desert or wilderness indicates the significant role the landscape played in biblical history and imagery. For the Hebrews, the desert was far more formative than the...

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Jerusalem: The Temple

This view is of the Temple, looking west. The Temple was one of the greatest buildings commissioned by Herod. The front was 170 feet high and 170 feet wide. The back portion was 170 feet high and 115 feet wide.The building was made of white marble...

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Temple

The TempleWhen King David reigned in Jerusalem, he envisioned a place where God could dwell among his people. He bought land on Mount Moriah, and his son Solomon eventually built the Temple on that site. The beautiful structure became a symbol of ...

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City of Great Kings

Jerusalem was a fitting place for Jesus, the greatest king of all, to live out the final moments of his life.Jerusalem held deep cultural and religious significance for the Jewish people. Many of their great leaders, David, Solomon, Hezekiah, reig...

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Jerusalem: The Cave of the Spring of Gihon

The water flowing out of this cave, the source of the spring of Gihon, is the reason Jerusalem was built on the ridge above.The spring provides more than 34,250 cubic feet of water per day. The water runs from the cave a short distance (about 33 f...

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Jerusalem: Hezekiah's Water System

The main water supply for the city of Jerusalem was the spring of Gihon, which flowed out of a cave on the eastern side of the hill on which the city stood. The Hebrew word means "gushing out" and was given because the spring does not ha...

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