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A Far Country Decapolis

The Decapolis is mentioned by name only three times in the New Testament. In addition to these three instances, on at least two other occasions, Jesus visited specific locations in the largely pagan league of cities to the east of the Sea of Galil...


Gymnasium at Sardis


Hellenism: Center of the Universe

Hellenism: Center of the UniverseSatan tempted the first humans in the Garden of Eden in a clever way. "Did God really say...?" (Gen. 3:1) he asked. Adam and Eve were faced with an earthshaking choice. Who or what is the ultimate source ...


Language of Culture

A City Fit for the HerodsThere is no biblical record of Jesus teaching in Sepphoris, but we know that he grew up in the nearby village of Nazareth. From his hometown, Jesus could probably see the impressive city, which covered nearly five hundred ...


Lord of Lords

"...the Lamb will overcome them because he is Lord of lords and King of kings - and with him will be his called, chosen and faithful followers." (Rev. 17:14)The Christian faith began with antagonism between the Jewish Temple authorities ...




The port city of Ephesus, located on what is now the western coast of Turkey, was the crown jewel of Asia Minor. It had the population of nearly 250,000 people and was home to more than twenty pagan temples. Artistic beauty, cultural learning, ero...


Features of the Gymnasium in Sardis

The Palaestra In this large (six hundred by one hundred fifty feet) open area in front of the Marble Court, physical education was done on the sand floor. Smaller rooms around the outside were also used for physical training, conditioning (weights...


Greek Gymnasiums

Every major Hellenistic city had an educational institution called a gymnasium, in which citizens of the Greek/Roman community were taught the wisdom of Hellenism. Religious Jews during Biblical times believed the gymnasium to be an abomination be...



Just three miles from the small town of Nazareth where Jesus grew up, archeologists are unearthing the sophisticated city of Sepphoris, the city Herod Antipas constructed as his administrative capital.Crowned by Herod's elaborate palace, Sepphoris...



Gymnasium Definition

Greek and Roman schools.


Paidagogos Definition

A slave attendant who accompanied students from wealthy families to school in order to tutor them in the lessons they received from the teacher in the gymnasium. (See Gal. 3:24).


Palaestra Definition

Courtyard of gymnasium used for exercise, wrestling, and boxing.