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24 of 418 Glossary

Most Christians remember Thomas as the doubting disciple who didn't believe the other disciples when they told him they'd seen the risen Jesus (John 20:19%u201425), and who said that he'd only believe if he touched Jesus' sacred hands and side (John 20:25).

But Thomas was also the disciple who demonstrated great faith and dedication to Jesus during his walk to Jerusalem. When Jesus told his disciples that they were returning to Judea, they protested, recalling that the Jews had tried to stone him there. But Thomas courageously agreed with Jesus, saying, "Let us also go, that we may die with him" (John 11:16). And the disciples remained with Jesus and headed toward Jerusalem.

Capital built by Herod Antipas on the Sea of Galilee's western shore; named for Tiberias Caesar. Believed to be built over a cementary and considered unclean by religious Jews. After AD 70, it became a center of Jewish religious thought.

Means "a tenth." In the Old Testament, God's people would give a tenth of their crops or animals to God. This was a sign that God owned the land and had blessed his people. Also, the tithe would be used to support the priests and Levites, and to help the poor.

Place where the Israelites sacrificed their children. Based on a Hebrew word meaning "furnace" or "fireplace," the word was altered by Hebrew scribes to mean "shameful thing." It came to apply as well to the cemetery where the victims' remains were buried and to the location in the Hinnom valley where the sacrifice occurred.

Hebrew word meaning "teaching" or "instruction." It refers to the first five books of Moses.

A reception or banquet hall or dining room. The tables were placed in a U-shape and surrounded by couches, where diners reclined as they ate.

Volcanic ash that becomes a soft stone.

This valley lay between David's City and the Western Hill where the Upper City was located. Hezekiah expanded the city into this valley. The Western Wall of Herod's Gentile Court was located here, as was the Pool of Siloam where Jesus sent a blind man to wash.

Tassels. In Numbers 15:38%u201439, God commands the Israelites to wear tassels on their garments as a reminder to them to obey all the commandments. In practice, each tassels came to have five knots (representing Torah), four spaces between the knots (representing the name YHWH%u2014YaHWeH). The numerical value of the word "tzitzit" (600), plus the five knots added to the eight strands of thread in each knot added up to the number 613%u2014a number of commandments God gave in the Torah.

Having a physical or moral blemish so as to make impure according to the laws, especially the dietary or ceremonial laws. Example: an unclean animal; unclean persons.

The highest area in Jerusalem (located on the Western Hill now named Mount Zion). Herod built his palace here, and many wealthy Jews also lived in the upper city. The area was dominated by affluent Hellenists.

Place where the Lord will summon the world to be judged. ("Jehoshaphat" means "the Lord will judge.") The Kidron Valley east of Jerusalem is believed to be this location.

Large, flat, fertile plain in northern Israel between the Galilee Mountains and the Samaria Mountains. The international trade route Via Maris passed through this area. It is also known as the Valley of Armageddon.

Roman god of love and beauty. Daughter of Zeus and Dione (or did she spring from the sea?)

Roman goddess of the hearth and home. Sister of Zeus.

Roman god of victory, pictured with a wreath. Granddaughter of Oceanus, daughter of Styx.

(Hebrew: nahal) - Mountain canyons that carry water only when it rains; dry riverbeds with occasional flash floods. Wadi Kelt was a significant pass into and through the Judea Mountains between Jericho and Jerusalem.

Provided direct acess to the temple courts.

During Biblical times, Israel was located at the crossroads of the world, where the trade of the civilized world passes through. Since the Arabian desert was in between the empires of Egypt and Mesopotamia (Persia, Babylon, Assyira), the only trade route passed through Israel, a narrow land bridge between the Mediterranean Sea and the desert to the east. This busy road, the lifeline of the trade route, was known as "Way of the Sea."

Once within the walls of ancient Jerusalem, the Western Hill was located at the southwest corner of the city. It is very sacred to the Jewish people because it is the traditional spot of David's tomb. The upper room where Jesus ate the last supper is found here as well (Luke 22:1%u201438).

Wilderness south of the Judea and Negev mountains between the Wilderness of Zin and the Sinai Peninsula. The Israelites wandered here for 40 years.