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24 of 418 Glossary

Bronze basin at the entrance to the tabernacle used for ceremonial purification before sacrifices were made. It also symbolized God's forgiveness after sacrifices were made. Solomon commissioned a large basin for the temple at Jerusalem. It was over 14 feet in diameter and seven feet high: it weighed over 25 tons and held 13,000 gallons of water. It sat on the backs of 12 oxen, three facing north, three facing west, three facing south, and three facing east.

Although not named by many ancient sources, this district inside the Second Wall held many shops and markets. Jesus walked through the area on market day on his way to the cross.

Port city and provincial capital of the Roman province of Judea. Herod built a spectacular man-made harbor with two breakwaters to link the country with world commerce.

Large Hellenistic city rebuilt and renamed by Philip the Tetrarch. Located on Mount Hermon in the upper Jordan Valley near the spring of Panias, one of the three headwaters of the Jordan River, and the site of a great pagan temple dedicated to Pan, the Roman fertility god.

A high priest of the Jews who presided over the assembly that condemned Jesus to death. (Matt. 26).

Hot room in Roman baths.

Golgotha, the place where Jesus was crucified (Luke 23:33).

Old Testament name for the Promised Land. It means "land of purple," referring to the color of the dye produced from shellfish along Canaan's coast. Canaan is at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea where Asia, Europe, and Africa come together.

The word originally meant "merchant" or "trader." Eventually it came to refer to the people of the region.

The topmost part of a column.

Column in the form of a female figure.

The great hall of a temple which contained the cult statue.

Region made up of three mountain ranges: Hebron in the south, Judea in the center, and Samaria in the north.

An officer in the Roman army in charge of 100 soldiers.

Roman god of earth. Daughter of Cronus and Rhea.

Hebrew word meaning "totally given to the Lord," often through destruction. Only God's judgment could reclaim anything placed under this curse.

The title of Jesus that means "annointed" or "chosen one" in Greek. The Hebrew word is "Messiah." Jesus Christ is God's chosen one to bring salvation to his people.

A group of the followers of Jesus that meets in a certain place. Jesus calls the church his body. Most of the books of the New Testament are letters to churches.

Because water in Israel is hard to come by, most ancient cities, towns, and even households used cisterns to catch and store rain runoff from rooftops, courtyards, and even streets.

Cisterns were dug by hand out of solid rock and were plastered so they would hold water. They needed constant care because the plaster tended to fall off, which allowed the precious water to leak out. When a cistern failed to hold water, it created a desperate situation for the people who depended on it.

During Biblical times, city gates protected the entrance to the city and functioned as the center of city life. In various chambers inside the gatehouse, people paid their taxes, settled legal matters, and even met the king. The city gates also provided a gathering place for prophets, kings, priests, judges, and other city leaders.

A place of safety for people who had accidentally killed someone (Deut. 19:1-21).